In the US the amount of diabetes and obesity has risen dramatically. It is estimated that 75% of the adult population in the US is obese or overweight and the percentage of children with overweight problems is rapidly increasing.
Diabetes and prediabetes which can be associated with obesity can also develop in normal weight people. Diabetes and prediabetes is now estimated to afflict 52% of the population.
These problems shorten lives by 20-30 years, create other health problems (e.g. cardiovascular disease) and increase health costs dramatically. The amazing fact about diabetes and obesity is that it is preventable and does not have to be associated with a genetic predisposition.
Insulin is a hormone secreted by the Beta cells of the pancreas to allow glucose or sugar to enter your cells.
When no insulin is made Type I, juvenile onset diabetes develops. When not enough insulin is made or high levels of circulating insulin are constantly secreted because of high sugar, carbohydrate food intake Type II (adult onset) diabetes develops. When cells (muscle cells, heart cells, brain cells, liver cells, etc) are constantly exposed to insulin they become resistant to insulin (insulin resistance) and glucose / sugar cannot enter into the cells and high levels of sugar and glucose circulate in the body.
Upon further intake of sugar or carbohydrates the sugar remains outside the cells or goes into the liver and is converted to fat. Insulin resistance leads to diabetes and diabetes leads to obesity. This obesity and high circulating insulin or high blood glucose is very damaging to many tissues which is why diabetics also have neuropathy, kidney damage, damage to blood vessels and damage to the pancreas further exacerbating diabetes.
The following conference highlights were taken from the Keystone Symposium on Obesity (January 2017) and the World Congress Meeting on Insulin Resistance, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease.
1) Anthony Fenante MD-
Macrophages (large white blood cells which “eat” toxins and pathogens) have been shown to be much more prevalent in obese people. These macrophages produce insulin resistance resulting in inflammation and loss of the energy factories of the body (mitochondria). Obese people make much less energy as a result.
2) Aaron Cypess MD PhD-
There are 2 types of fat- Brown fat is in slim people and infants while White fat is the obesity fat. The Brown fat has more mitochondria which are more efficient and are anti-inflammatory. The research by Dr. Cypess involves the use of Brown fat to treat obesity. Cold exposure (with showers or outdoor cold) and High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) stimulates the production of healthy Brown fat which stimulates the loss of obesity.
3) Zachary Bloomgarden MD-
His research involves blood vessel wall lining (endothelium). When the cells of the vessel walls become Insulin Resistant it leads to blockage and inflexibility of arteries which lead to Cardiovascular Disease.
4) Sonia Caprio MD-
Her work involved obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes in children and adolescents. These young people with glucose intolerance develop diabetes at much higher rates than adults. Her conclusion is that obese women who become pregnant have much greater health complications during pregnancy and their babies have higher rates of diabetes and obesity.
5) Jens Holst MD-
He is using intestinal hormones (GLP1 and GIP) involved in sugar metabolism to induce weight loss.
6) Patrice Cani- PhD-
His research is on the need for gut bacteria (Lactobacillus and Bacteroides) to decrease or prevent obesity. He also has shown fish oil improves intestinal function as a way to prevent obesity.
7) Paresh Dandona MD PhD-
His research involves the use of testosterone in obese adolescents and adult males to decrease insulin resistance and decrease fat (lose weight).
Other notable findings from this conference:
1) Fasting (significant lower food intake) decreases fat mass, blood pressure and insulin resistance. Extended fasting increases ketones which become the chief energy source in the body. Fasting is difficult the first 2 days after which the hunger hormone (ghrelin) decreases and fasting becomes easier.
2) It is now realized that eating should occur within a 7-8 hour block of time during the day and that constant snacking is not healthy as continual insulin is released every time one eats.
3) Visceral fat around the internal organs is much less healthy than subcutaneous (under the skin) fat. Insulin resistance in the brain impairs cognitive function. This is usually from high fructose consumption.
4) To reduce obesity and repair Insulin resistance eating a diet with little sugar / carbohydrates, exercise (especially high intensity interval training-HIIT) and only eating within an 8-9 hour block of time during the day is very effective. If you value your health, reduce your weight and change your diet to only include healthy food (low sugar and carbohydrates).
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Enjoy the Journey,
Vital 100 Wellness Team